Zhuang Wang, Wei Wei, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "**Carbon Nitride–Based Biosensors**", Chapter 4, in Biochemical Sensors: Nanomaterial-Based Biosensing and Application (Edited by Prof. Huangxian Ju and Prof. Jinghong Li), World Scientific **2021**, DOI: 10.1142/9789811238055_0004 PDF Polymeric carbon nitride (CN), as a kind of promising two-dimensional conjugated matter, exhibited outstanding photovoltaic effects. Recently, CN has also drawn increasing attention in constructing biosensors owing to its appealing properties such as responsiveness to visible light, facile synthesis from inexpensive raw materials with modulable electronic structures, remarkable thermal and physicochemical stability, abundant functional groups on the surface, and excellent photoelectrochemical features. This chapter introduces the synthesis as well as structure engineering of CN materials and further summarizes the advantages of CN in biosensing application. It is shown that plenty of efforts have been devoted to optimize the solubility, signal conversion efficiency, and active surfaces/sites that interact with biomolecules of CN materials, making CN more attractive for biosensing application. As a metal-free semiconductor with a narrow band gap, CN owns outstanding optical properties (photoluminescence and chemiluminescence) and the photoelectric conversion ability (electrochemiluminescence and photoelectrochemistry), which contributes to multiple signal output modes and various biosensors designing. Interestingly, beyond the conventional configurations and sensing mechanisms, a few very recent examples taking advantage of unique properties of CN are introduced in the last part in order to further outlook the bright future of CN materials in the field of biosensing. Qing Hong, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, Yuanjian Zhang\*, "**Re-Examination of Plotting Analytical Response against Different Forms of Concentration**", Anal. Chem. 2021, 93, 11910–11914. [Highlighted by X-Mol -- 重新审视：工作曲线拟合采用线性还是对数？] This perspective highlights the importance of examining the signal transformation mechanism before deciding to plot an analytical response against an appropriate form of concentration. Although sound in mathematical form and unprecedentedly successful in previous studies, the widely used linear and logarithmic fitting still have significant risks in concentration evaluation. Given the working principle of calibration curves, i.e., **utilizing a limited number of experimental data points to predict the full-scale unknown data points, a reliable fitting should follow the signal transformation mechanism rather than merely the data statistics**. Hong Yang, Zhuang Wang, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "**Molecular engineering of CxNy: topologies, electronic structures, and multidisciplinary applications**", Chin. Chem. Lett. (中国化学快报) 2020, 31, 3047-3054. ... the different ratios of C and N atoms in the framework... trigger extensive investigations of broad applications ranging from sustainable photocatalytic reactions and highly sensitive optoelectronic biosensing...This review paper aims to summarize the recent progress in topological structure design and the relevant electronic band structures and striking properties of CxNy materials... Mengyuan Chen, Zhenqiang Ning, Kaiyang Chen, Yuanjian Zhang\*, Yanfei Shen\*, "**Recent Advances of Electrochemiluminescent System in Bioassay**", Journal of Analysis and Testing 2020, 4, 57–75. 【see also in 专刊论文推荐：电化学发光体系在生物分析中的最新进展】 In the review, we summarize the latest progress of new ECL biosensing systems, in particular of emerging luminophores, coreactants, and the involved mechanisms. Possible limitations and exciting future developments of the ECL biosensing are also complementarily discussed. It is highly envisioned that the review article would inspire more intriguing advances both in the fundamental research and more demanding practical applications of ECL for prospective biosensing. Zhixin Zhou, Yuyue Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"**Molecular engineering of polymeric carbon nitride: advancing applications from photocatalysis to biosensing and more**", Chem. Soc. Rev. 2018, 47, 2298-2321 (Front Cover) [Highlighted by X-Mol-"分子结构设计推进石墨相氮化碳的新应用：从光催化到生物传感"] Different design and construction of molecular structure of carbon nitride for emerging applications, such as biosensing, are discussed. **Research Articles** Jin Ma, Xiaoxiao Peng, Zhixin Zhou, Hong Yang, Kaiqing Wu, Zhengzou Fang, Dan Han, Yanfeng Fang, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Extended Conjugation Refining Carbon Nitride for Non-sacrificial H2O2 Photosynthesis and Hypoxic Tumor Therapy", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2022, 61, e202210856 (VIP paper) [Highlighted by WileyChem, 邃瞳科学云"C5N2提高H2O2光合成选择性和活性用于肿瘤治疗"] Strengthening delocalization of π-electrons by linkers downshifted the band position in a new carbon nitride that eliminated thermodynamically side photoreduction of H2 meanwhile promoted water oxidation kinetics. A competitive solar-to-chemical conversion efficiency of 0.55% for overall H2O2 production in normoxic condition and the highest activity in hypoxic condition (698 μM/h) were achieved, endowing a high-performance hypoxic tumor therapy. Dan Han, Hong Yang, Zhixin Zhou, Kaiqing Wu, Jin Ma, Yanfeng Fang, Qing Hong, Guangcheng Xi, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Photoelectron Storages in Functionalized Carbon Nitrides for Colorimetric Sensing of Oxygen", ACS Sensors 2022, 7, 2328–2337. **Colorimetric sensors have been widely used for centuries across diverse fields**, thanks to their easy operation and uncompromisingly high sensitivity with no need for electricity. However, it is still a great challenge for conventional chromogenic systems to perform multiple measurements meanwhile maintaining high robustness. Here, we reported that carbon nitrides (CNs), the raw materials that are abundant, structure-tunable, and stable semiconductors with photoelectron storage capability, can be developed as a chromogenic system for colorimetric sensors. Beyond conventional metal oxides that only demonstrated a single blue-color switch after photoelectron storage, CN exhibited a multicolor switch under identical conditions owing to the unusual multiple photoelectron storage pathways. Mechanism studies revealed cyano and carbonyl groups in CN crucially elongated the centroid distance of electrons/holes, which exclusively stabilized the specific excited states that have different light absorption; meanwhile, the counter cations strengthened these processes. As a result, O2, a proof-of-concept analyte, was quantitatively detected by the CN-derived colorimetric sensor, showing high reversibility in hundreds of cycles and adaptable sensitivity/detection range, outperforming most reported and commercial oxygen sensors. These intriguing features of CN are highly envisioned for the next generation of colorimetric sensors, especially in developing countries or fieldworks, to improve the detection reliability and lower the sensing cost. Yanfeng Fang, Yuhua Hou, Hong Yang, Ran Chen, Wang Li, Jin Ma, Dan Han, Xuwen Cao, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Elucidating Orbital Delocalization Effects on Boosting Electrochemiluminescence Efficiency of Carbon Nitrides", Adv. Optical Mater. 2022, 10, 2201017. [Highlighted by Advanced Science News"轨道离域影响二维氮化碳电化学发光效率"] Orbital delocalization, associated with the evolution of the complicated molecule during the thermal condensation of carbon nitrides, is disclosed as a unified and quantifiable intrinsic factor for their electrochemiluminescence (ECL) efficiency. Moreover, a general approach for evaluating ECL kinetics was established, which excluded the inevitable dependency between ECL efficiency and photoluminescent quantum yield of luminophores. Sicheng Liang, Zhuang Wang, Zhixin Zhoua, Gaolin Liang\*, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Polymeric carbon nitride-based materials: Rising stars in bioimaging", Biosens. Bioelectron. 2022, 211, 114370. Polymeric carbon nitrides (CN), due to their unique physicochemical properties, versatile surface functionalization, ultra-high surface area, and good biocompatibility, have attracted considerable interest in diverse biomedical applications, such as biosensors, drug delivery, bioimaging, and theranostics. In this review, the recent advances in bioimaging of CN-based nanomaterials are summarized according to the imaging modalities, including optical (fluorescence and Raman) imaging, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), photoacoustic imaging (PAI), computed tomography (CT), and multimodal imaging. The pros and cons of CN bioimaging are comprehensively analyzed and compared with those in previous reports. In the end, the prospects and challenges of their future bioimaging applications are outlooked. Yongjun Zheng, Hong Yang, Lufang Zhao, Yuhan Bai, Xinghua Chen, Kaiqing Wu, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Lighting Up Electrochemiluminescence-Inactive Dyes via Grafting Enabled by Intramolecular Resonance Energy Transfer", Anal. Chem. 2022, 94, 3296–3302. Most dyes with excellent photophysical properties are electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-inactive in aqueous solutions. A general way to light up ECL inactive dyes was reported by grafting, a well-developed concept for plant propagation since 500 BCE. It opens a promising way to address the scarcity of ECL emitters and bring unprecedented functions. Qing Zhou, Hong Yang, Xinghua Chen, Yuan Xu, Dan Han, Sisi Zhou, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Cascaded Nanozyme system with High Reaction Selectivity by Substrate Screening and Channeling in a Microfluidic Device", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2022, 61, e202112453. [**级联限域反应提升纳米酶选择性和传感灵敏度**Highlighted by [**纳米酶公众号**](https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/WbfwRTrzqovcdfhuHlvRBQ), [**WileyChem**](https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/qHV6McoUhLApHTCac3kRpA)] By mimicking processes in livings, the reaction selectivity of nanozyme-system was enhanced by substrates screening and channeling. The emerging N-doped carbon nanocages and Prussian blue nanoparticles were cascaded as a proof of concept, improving the reaction selectivity in transforming products against interferences by 2000+ times. This general operation principle is also promising to integrate with other strategies to further boost the selectivity. Xinghua Chen, Caixia Zhu, Yuan Xu, Kaiyuan Wang, Xuwen Cao, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Quantitative Evaluation of O2 Activation Half-Reaction for Fe-N-C in Oxidase-Like Activity Enhancement", Catal. Sci. Technol. 2021, 11, 7255-7259. [Highlighted by 纳米酶公众号: [**电化学量化评估O2还原半反应指导Fe-N-C类氧化酶活性的提高**](https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/ooctQH4vYu4tGB_mqXO5CQ)] The oxidase-like activity of high-performance Fe-N-C was enhanced up to 55 % by using a secondary N-containing precursor in pyrolysis. Moreover, the **exploration of the O2 activation half-reaction using electrochemical methods** was disclosed to be a practically facile approach to quantitatively evaluate the factors associated with the activity. Hong Yang, Qing Zhou, Zhengzou Fang, Wang Li, Yongjun Zheng, Jin Ma, Zhuang Wang, Lufang Zhao, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Carbon Nitride of Five-Membered Rings with Low Optical Bandgap for Photoelectrochemical Biosensing", Chem 2021, 7, 2708–2721. [Highlighted by X-mol: [**五元环氮化碳谱写光电生物传感新篇章**](https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/uFgNhTbUuawgPWy_jyEFoA "五元环氮化碳谱写光电生物传感新篇章")] We propose a stable five-membered ring (FMR)-based carbon nitride and the kinetic-oriented synthesis method via a pre-stabilization strategy thanks to coordination interactions. The FMR topological structure and the associated dangling bonds in C3N2 were identified to be the origin for the remarkably narrowed the optical band down to unusually as low as 0.81 eV. Photoelectrochemical exploration further demonstrates the great potential of C3N2 in real-time, dynamic, and quantitative biosensing for practically non-transparent biosamples using near-infrared light irradiation. Yuhan Bai‡, Yongjun Zheng‡, Zhuang Wang, Qing Hong, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, " Metal-Doped Carbon Nitrides: Synthesis, Structure and Applications", New J. Chem. 2021, 45, 11876-11892. Doping of metal is a common strategy to regulate the structure of carbon nitride materials at the molecular level. This perspective provides a comprehensive reference of the latest progress of M-CN, which would promote further developments, such as for single-atom catalysis and nanozymatic reactions. Xinghua Chen, Lufang Zhao, Kaiqing Wu, Hong Yang, Qing Zhou, Yuan Xu, Yongjun Zheng, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Bound Oxygen-Atom Transfer Endowing Peroxidase-Mimic M-N-C with High Substrate Selectivity", Chem. Sci. 2021, 12, 8865-8871. [**2021 Chem Sci Pick of the Week**] [see Preprint in ChemRxiv. **2020**, highlight by **纳米酶 Nanozymes**：[**结合态氧原子转移赋予M-N-C类过氧化物酶底物选择性**](https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/P02TwsPstKBwwDKThzutnQ "结合态氧原子转移赋予M-N-C类过氧化物酶底物选择性")] The formation of bound oxygen intermediates (M=O) on M-N-C peroxidase-like nanozymes was disclosed to be the origin of the high substrate selectivity by both experiments and theoretical calculation. Learning principles from biology, this work highlights the great potential of biomimetic bound-intermediates in endow nanozymes with high reaction selectivity towards industrial reactions previously not accessible to biology. Chaofeng Huang‡, Yaping Wen‡, Jin Ma‡, Dandan Dong, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, Haibo Ma\* and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Unraveling Fundamental Active Units in Carbon Nitride for Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactions", Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 320. [Highlighted by X-MOL: **各骋所长：氮化碳光催化氧化的基本活性单元**] The acquisition of critical roles of each molecular constituent in carbon nitrides for photocatalysis remains elusive. In this work, we synthesize carbon nitrides with distinguishable units and reveal the roles of the different units in light absorption and charge separation. Yuye Zhang†, Yongxiu Song†, Yanfei Shen, Kaiyang Chen, Qing Zhou, Yanqin Lv, Hong Yang, Ensheng Xu, Songqin Liu, Lei Liu\* and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Water Molecules-Triggered Anisotropic Deformation of Carbon Nitride Nanoribbons Enabling Contactless Respiratory Inspection", CCS Chemistry 2021, 3, 1615–1625. [see also in ChemRxiv. Preprint, Highlighted by **X-MOL: 水分子作用下氮化碳可逆扭曲与“肺动图”**] The exploitation of the interaction between nanostructured matters and small molecules, such as H2O at interfaces via a dynamic hydrogen bonding, is essentially the key for smart, responsive nanodevices but remains challenging. Herein, we report that the carbon nitride nanoribbons (CNNRs) with an anisotropic intraplanar and interplanar molecular arrangement underwent a deformation by H2O triggering... Yuan Xu, Jing Xue, Qing Zhou, Yongjun Zheng, Xinghua Chen, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "The Fe-N-C Nanozyme with Both Accelerated and Inhibited Biocatalytic Activities Capable of Accessing Drug-Drug Interaction", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 14498-14503 (**Hot Paper**). [see also in ChemRxiv. Preprint, Highlighted by X-mol, 纳米酶 Nanozymes--**油门与刹车：Fe-N-C分子活性中心调控与药物相互作用研究**，WileyChem: **类酶分子活性中心调控Fe-N-C纳米酶催化与抑制效应**] **Accelerator and Brake** of nanozyme are enabled by mimicking molecular structure of enzymes. Owing to the heme-like Fe-Nx molecular structure and variable interactions with different substrates, Fe-N-C nanozyme not only accelerates P450-like drug metabolization reactions but also demonstrates inhibition behaviors with mechanism similar to P450 upon co-existence of other food and drugs. Jianhai Wang, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Single 2D MXene Precursor-Derived TiO2 Nanosheets with a Uniform Decoration of Amorphous Carbon for Enhancing Photocatalytic Water Splitting", Appl. Cat. B: Environ. 2020, 118885. [50 days' free access] The stacked nanosheets with ordered structure inheriting from the 2D MXene and the uniform decoration of carbon layer jointly endowed a favorable electron-hole separation and transportation in TiO2 for the photocatalytic H2 evolution. Qing Zhou‡, Guanghui Li‡, Kaiyang Chen, Hong Yang, Mengran Yang, Yuye Zhang, Yakun Wan\*, Yanfei Shen\*, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Simultaneous Unlocking Optoelectronic and Interfacial Properties of C60 for Ultrasensitive Immunosensing by Coupling to Metal−Organic Framework", Anal. Chem. 2020, 92, 983-990. C60 has attracted fascinating interests in the field of photovoltaics. However, poor delocalization and accumulation of electrons in physiological aqueous solution system and the incompatible interface for effective conjugation of biomolecules limit C60 for bioassay. Here, it is simultaneously unlocked optoelectronic and interfacial properties of C60 by coupling to an electronically complementary porphyrin-derived metal-organic framework (MOF) with carboxyl-group terminals (PCN-224). Tingting Zhao, Qing Zhou, Yanqin Lv, Dan Han, Kaiqing Wu, Lufang Zhao, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Ultrafast Condensation of Carbon Nitride on Electrodes with Exceptional Boosted Both Photocurrent and Electrochemiluminescence", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2020, 59, 1139-1143. [Highlighted by 研之成理--"更快、更高、更强的氮化碳光电极"] Ultrafast heating not only addressed the thermodynamic contradiction of precursor volatilization during polymerization but also led to strongly adhesive carbon nitride on electrodes with gradient C-rich texture, making charge separation and mobility greatly accelerated along with a remarkable photocurrent and a record cathodic electrochemiluminescence efficiency (ca. 7 times of benchmark Ru(bpy)3Cl2) in aqueous solution. Ziyu Gan, Chao feng Huang, Yanfei Shen, Qing Zhou, Dan Han, Jin Ma, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Preparation of carbon nitride nanoparticles by nanoprecipitation method with high yield and enhanced photocatalytic activity", Chinese Chem. Lett. (中国化学快报) 2020, 31, 513-516 Rapid preperation of carbon nitride nanoparticles (∼40 nm, yield of up to 50%) by nanoprecipitation Dongya Ni, Yuye Zhang\*, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Promoting condensation kinetics of polymeric carbon nitride for enhanced photocatalytic activities", Chinese Chem. Lett. (中国化学快报) 2020, 31, 115-118. An long-term overlooked condensation recipe: Faster ramping rate was even simpler than the conventional one, but led to an improved photocatalytic H2 evolution up to 3 times without any additional chemicals or other complements. Lufang Zhao, Jingjing Ji, Yanfei Shen, Kaiqing Wu, Tingting Zhao, Hong Yang, Yanqin Lv, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Exfoliation and Sensitization of 2D Carbon Nitride for Photoelectrochemical Biosensing under Red Light", Chem. Eur. J. 2019, 25, 15680– 15686 Red-light PEC biosensor: The delicate π–π interaction between copper phthalocyanine and bulk carbon nitride not only led to the successful exfoliation of 2D nanosheets, but also resulted in an effective donor–acceptor interaction with much-improved photocurrent. As one of the very few successful red-light-responsive photoelectrochemical sensor systems, the final nanohybrid exhibited enhanced sensitivity and selectivity in biosensing applications under red-light irradiation. Dan Han, Dongya Ni, Qing Zhou, Jingjing Ji, Yanqin Lv, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Harnessing Photoluminescent Properties of Carbon Nitride Nanosheets in a Hierarchical Matrix", Adv. Funct. Mater. 2019, 1905576. [Highlighted by MaterialsViews China--"给氮化碳纳米片安一个固定的家"] 2D metal‐free carbon nitride (CN) has drawn worldwide interest, for example, in the field of optical sensing. However, previous efforts largely rely on CN dispersion in solutions, in which the long‐term dispersibility is challenging. Here, it is unlocked by introducing CN into a solid‐state hierarchical matrix, which not only maintains perpetual dispersibility but also exhibits superior performance in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon photoluminescent sensing. Jianhai Wang, Qing Zhou, Yanfei Shen, Xinghua Chen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Carbon Nitride Co-Catalyst Activation Using N-doped Carbon with Enhanced Photocatalytic H2 Evolution", Langmuir 2019, 35, 12366-12373 We report the interface engineering of urea-derived bulk CN and Pt co-catalyst by using a small portion of N-doped carbon (N-C) as transition layer with a boosted photocatalytic activity up to 7 times. It was revealed that the activation energy of Pt co-catalyst for water reduction was lowered in the presence of N-C, and the intimate interaction between CN and N-C, ascribing to the similar elemental composition and crystal structure, promoted the efficient separation and migration of charge carriers. Jingjing Ji, Lufang Zhao, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Covalent stabilization and functionalization of MXene via silylation reactions with improved surface properties", FlatChem. 2019, 17, 100128 [Personalized Share Link] The silylation reagents improve the stability and introduce adjustable hydrophilicity to MXene. Mengran Yang, Hao Mei, Yanfei Shen, Kaiqing Wu, Deng Pan, Songqin Liu, Ting Zhang, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Hot‐Tailoring of Carbon Nitride Dots with Red‐Shifted Photoluminescence for Visual Double Text Encrypt and Bioimaging", Chem. Eur. J. 2019, 25, 10188-10196 Carbon nitride dots with Red‐Shifted Photoluminescence: Chemical tailoring? No, Hot tailoring! Hao Mei, Mengran Yang, Yanfei Shen, Fei He, Zhixin Zhou, Xinghua Chen, Yiran Yang, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Non-Covalent Pre-Organization of Molecular Precursors: A facile Approach for Engineering Structures and Activities of Pyrolyzed Co-N-C Electrocatalysts", Carbon 2019, 144, 312-320. Preparation of M-N-C catalysts like LEGO® game: The efficient and low-cost platinum group metal (PGM)-free metal-nitrogen-carbon electrocatalysts (M-N-C) are potential alternatives for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in artificial energy conversion devices. However, the solid-state reactions of M/C/N-containing precursors at high temperature was rather complicated, making the engineering of carbonization processes of M-N-C catalysts challenging and less explored. Herein, we report a way to modulate the pyrolysis processes of M-N-C by pre-organization of the molecular precursors via a simple solvation, in which, the simultaneous hydrogen bonding and coordination interactions played an important roles. This work highlights the great potential of the pre-organization for the designing and selecting of precursors to engineer pyrolyzed M-N-C with higher electrocatalytic activities. Li Shangguan, Yuanqing Wei, Kan Wang, Yuanjian Zhang\*, and Songqin Liu\*,"Highly sensitive fluorescent bioassay of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-dibenzo-p-dioxin based on abnormal expression of cytochrome P450 1A2 in human cells", Anal. Chim. Acta 2019, 1046, 179-184 Chaofeng Huang†, Jing Wen†, Yanfei Shen, Fei He, Li Mi, Ziyu Gan, Jin Ma, Songqin Liu, Haibo Ma\*，Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Dissolution and Performing Homogeneous Photocatalysis of Polymeric Carbon Nitride", Chem. Sci. 2018, 9, 7912-7915 (Back Cover) [see also: ChemRxiv. Preprint. 2018, DOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.6959627 ; Highlighted by X-Mol-"有“溶”乃大：氮化碳首例均相催化"] Polymeric carbon nitride (CN) is a promising (photo)catalyst towards heterogeneous reactions and optoelectronic biosensing. By following prototype of enzymes, making all catalytic sites accessible via homogeneous routes is envisioned to maximize activities, but hindered by the poor solubility of CN. We report the unusual dissolution of CN in environmental-friendly methanesulfonic acid. The homogeneous CN showed 10-time boosted activity, meanwhile heterogeneous catalysts hallmark (facile separation and recycling) was kept. It opens new vista of CN in homogeneous catalysis and offers a successful example of polymeric catalysts in bridging homo/heterogeneous catalysis. Fei He, Li Mi, Yanfei Shen, Toshiyuki Mori, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Fe-N-C Artificial Enzyme: Activation of Oxygen for Dehydrogenation and Monoxygenation of Organic Substrates under Mild Condition and Cancer Therapeutic Application", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 35327–35333 (see also: ChemRxiv. Preprint. 2018, DOI: 10.26434/chemrxiv.6427643) Developing highly efficient artificial enzymes that directly employ O2 as terminal oxidant has long been pursued but has rarely achieved yet. We report Fe-N-C has unusual enzyme-like activity in both dehydrogenation and monoxygenation of organic substrates with ~100% selectivity by direct using O2. Qing Zhou, Huaijia Xue, Yuye Zhang, Yanqin Lv, Hongguang Li, Songqin Liu, Yanfei Shen\*, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Metal-Free All-Carbon Nanohybrid for Ultra-Sensitive Photoelectrochemical Immunosensing of alpha-Fetoprotein", ACS Sens. 2018, 3, 1385–1391 Yanqin Lv, Zhixin Zhou, Yanfei Shen, Qing Zhou, Jingjing Ji, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Coupled Fluorometer-Potentiostat System and Metal-Free Monochromatic Luminophores for High-Resolution Wavelength-Resolved Electrochemiluminescent Multiplex Bioassay", ACS Sens. 2018, 3, 1362–1367 The sensitive simultaneous detection of multiple biomarkers is critical for the early diagnosis of diseases. Electrochemiluminescence (ECL) offers outstanding advantages, e.g., low background, over other optical sensing techniques. However, multiplexed ECL bioassay is hindered not only by the lack of generally available ECL spectrometers but also by the limited number of biocompatible monochromatic ECL luminophores for decades. Herein, we report addressing these issues by re-examination of the recent tabletop spectrofluorometer coupled potentiostat as a high-resolution ECL spectrum acquisition system and using carbon nitrides as monochromatic luminophores. A wavelength-resolved multiplexing ECL biosensor is demonstrated to simultaneously detect CA19-9 and mesothelin, two pancreatic cancer biomarkers, at a single-electrode interface. This work could initiate new opportunities for more general multiplex ECL biosensors with competitive performances. Yanqin Lv, Shiyu Chen, Yanfei Shen, Jingjing Ji, Qing Zhou, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Competitive Multiple-Mechanism-Driven Electrochemiluminescent Detection of 8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2018, 140, 2801. [Highlighted by X-Mol-"竞争机制驱动的电致化学发光策略检测8‑羟基脱氧鸟苷浓度"] Natural selection over billions of years has developed highly effective in vivo signal transduction that is often governed by a series of competitive multiple mechanisms. Several artificial signal transduction pathways have inspired nu-merous biosensing systems, however, most of these are driven by a single mechanism. Herein, we describe a multi-ple-mechanism-driven electrochemiluminescent (ECL) bio-sensor that utilizes competitive catalytic and steric hin-drance effects by assembling hemin/G-quadruplex on the carbon nitride nanosheets. Taking detecting 8-Hydroxy-2’-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) as example, the integrated dy-namic ranges of the detectable concentration from each mechanism were achieved in a single sensor interface. Moreover, the detection sensitivity was more precisely con-trolled by the competition between the two mechanisms, and inherently boosted, compared to that of the single mechanism-driven detection. Going beyond the conven-tional single mechanism-driven biosensing, the elaborately biomimetic coupling of multiple mechanisms in a single interface may open a new approach for future multiplexed biosensing. Shiyu Chen, Yanqin Lv, Yanfei Shen, Jingjing Ji, Qing Zhou, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Highly Sensitive and Quality Self-Testable Electrochemiluminescence Assay of DNA Methyltransferase Activity Using Multifunctional Sandwich-Assembled Carbon Nitride Nanosheets ", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2018, 10, 6887. Yile Chen, Zhongshen Zhan, Jianhai Wang, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Solution-based processing of carbon nitride composite for boosted photocatalytic activities ", Chinese Chem. Lett. (中国化学快报) 2018, 29, 437. 50 days' free access Jingjing Ji, Jing Wen, Yanfei Shen, Yanqin Lv, Yile Chen, Songqin Liu, Haibo Ma, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Simultaneous Noncovalent Modification and Exfoliation of 2D Car-bon Nitride for Enhanced Electrochemiluminescent Biosensing ", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2017, 139, 11698–11701. [Highlighted by X-Mol-"非共价修饰和剥离二维氮化碳提升电化学发光生物传感性能"] As an emerging nitrogen-rich 2D carbon material, graphitic carbon nitride (CN) has drawn much attention ranging from photo-/electrocatalysts to biosensors. Interfacial modification of CN is of fundamental vital, but still is in infancy and challenging due to the low reactivity of CN. Herein, we report that via a π-π stacking interaction, bulk CN could be simultaneously exfoliated into via a facile mechanically grinding. The as-obtained CN nanosheets (m-CNNS) not only retained the pristine optoelectronic properties of bulk CN but also enriched a friendly interface for further coupling biomolecules with advanced properties, overcoming the deficiencies of CN in surface science. As a proof of concept, the m-CNNS were further covalently linked to a probe DNA, and the resultant electrochemiluminescent biosensor for the target DNA exhibited much enhanced sensitivity with respect to that by direct physical absorption of probe DNA on unmodified CNNS. This noncovalent exfoliation and interfacial modification would greatly expand the scope of potential applications of CN such as biosensing, and also be applicable to other 2D materials in interface modulation. Xinghua Chen, Fei He, Yanfei Shen, Yiran Yang, Hao Mei, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Effect of Carbon Supports on Enhancing Mass Kinetic Current Density of Fe-N/C Electrocatalysts", Chem. Eur. J. 2017, 23, 14597. Yiran Yang, Fei He, Yanfei Shen, Xinghua Chen, Hao Mei, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"A Biomass Derived N/C-Catalyst for Electrochemical Production of Hydrogen Peroxide", Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 9994-9997. Fei He, Li Mi, Yanfei Shen, Xinghua Chen, Yiran Yang, Hao Mei, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Driving Electrochemical Oxygen Reduction and Hydrazine Oxidation Reaction by Enzyme-inspired Polymeric Cu(3, 3'-Diaminobenzidine) Catalyst ", J. Mater. Chem. A 2017, 5, 17413-17420 Jianhai Wang, Yile Chen, Yanfei Shen, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Coupling Polymorphic Nanostructured Carbon Nitrides into an Isotype Heterojunction with Boosted Photocatalytic H2 Evolution ", Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 2978-2981. Zhixin Zhou, Fei He, Yanfei Shen, Xinghua Chen, Yiran Yang, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori,and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Coupling Multiphase-Fe and Hierarchical N-doped Graphitic Carbon as Trifunctional Electrocatalysts by Supramolecular Preorganization of Precursors", Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 2044-2047. Open Access Qing Zhou†, Guanghui Li†, Yuanjian Zhang, Min Zhu, Yakun Wan\*, and Yanfei Shen\*,"Highly Selective and Sensitive Electrochemical Immunoassay of Cry1C Using Nanobody and π–π Stacked Graphene Oxide/Thionine Assembly", Anal. Chem. 2016, 88, 9830–9836. Yuye Zhang, Zhixin Zhou, Yanfei Shen, Qing Zhou, Jianhai Wang, Anran Liu, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Reversible Assembly of Graphitic Carbon Nitride 3D Network for Highly Selective Dyes Absorption and Regeneration", ACS Nano 2016, 10, 9036–9043.[Highlighted by X-MOL-"石墨相C3N4的化学剪裁：可逆自组装与选择性吸脱附应用"] Shuang Lou, Zhixin Zhou, Yanfei Shen, Zongsheng Zhan, Jianhai Wang, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Comparison Study of the Photoelectrochemical Activity of Carbon Nitride with Different Photoelectrode Configurations", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2016, 8, 22287–22294. Jianhai Wang, Yanfei Shen, Ying Li, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Crystallinity Modulation of Layered Carbon Nitride for Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities", Chem. Eur. J. 2016, 22, 12449–12454. Open Access Zhixin Zhou, Qiuwei Shang, Yanfei Shen, Linqun Zhang, Yuye Zhang, Yanqin Lv, Ying Li, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Chemically Modulated Carbon Nitride Nanosheets for Highly Selective Electrochemiluminescent Detection of Multiple Metal-ions", Anal. Chem. 2016, 88 (11), 6004–6010. [Highlighted by X-MOL-"化学调控氮化碳纳米片及其应用于电致化学发光检测多种金属离子"] Fei He, Xinghua Chen, Yanfei Shen, Ying Li, Anran Liu, Songqin Liu, Toshiyuki Mori, and Yuanjian Zhang\*,"Ionic Liquid-Derived Fe−N/C Catalysts for Highly Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction Without Any Supports, Templates, and Multi-Step of Pyrolysis", J. Mater. Chem. A 2016, 4, 6630 - 6638. Open Access Zhixin Zhou, Yanfei Shen, Ying Li, Anran Liu, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Chemical Cleavage of Layered Carbon Nitride with Enhanced Photoluminescent Performances and Photoconduction", ACS Nano 2015, 9, 12480–12487. Qiuwei Shang,‡ Zhixin Zhou,‡ Yanfei Shen, Yuye Zhang, Ying Li, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Potential Modulated Electrochemiluminescence of Carbon Nitride Nanosheets for Dual-Signal Sensing of Metal-ions", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 23672–23678. Yuewu Zhao, Qiuwei Shang, Jiachao Yu, Yuanjian Zhang\* and Songqin Liu\*, "Nanostructured 2D Diporphyrin Honeycomb Film: Photoelectrochemistry, Photodegradation, and Antibacterial Activity", ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2015, 7, 11783-11791. Yuewu Zhao, Linqun Zhang, Wei Wei, Ying Li, Anran Liu, Yuanjian Zhang\* and Songqin Liu\*, "Effect of annealing temperature and element composition of titanium dioxide/graphene/hemin catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction", RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 82879-82886. Yang Zhao, Yuanjian Zhang\*, and Zoe Schnepp\*, "Soft and hard templating of graphitic carbon nitride", J. Mater. Chem. A 2015, 3, 14081–14092. Zhixin Zhou, Jianhai Wang, Jiachao Yu, Yanfei Shen, Ying Li, Anran Liu, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Dissolution and Liquid Crystals Phase of 2D Polymeric Carbon Nitride", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2015, 137 (6), 2179–2182. Jianhai Wang, Cheng Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Zhixin Zhou, Jiachao Yu, Ying Li, Wei Wei, Songqin Liu, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Environment-Friendly Preparation of Porous Graphite-Phase Polymeric Carbon Nitride Using Calcium Carbonate as Templates and Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Activity", J. Mater. Chem. A 2015, 3, 5126-5131. Jiachao Yu , Peicheng Luo , Chuanxian Xin , Xiaodong Cao, Yuanjian Zhang\* , and Songqin Liu\*, "Quantitative Evaluation of Biological Reaction Kinetics in Confined Nanospaces", Anal. Chem. 2014, 86, 8129–8135 Hao Shi, Yanfei Shen, Fei He, Ying Li, Anran Liu, Songqin Liu and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "**Recent advances of doped carbon as non-precious catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction**", J. Mater. Chem. A 2014, 2, 15704-15716. Xuebin Wang,\* Yuanjian Zhang, Chunyi Zhi, Xi Wang, Daiming Tang, Yibin Xu, Qunhong Weng, Xiangfen Jiang, Masanori Mitome, Dmitri Golberg, Yoshio Bando,\* "Three-dimensional strutted graphene grown by substrate-free sugar blowing for high-power-density supercapacitors", Nat. Commun. 2013, 4, 2905. Zoë Schnepp,\* Yuanjian Zhang,\* Martin J. Hollamby, Brian R. Pauw, Masahiko Tanaka, Yoshitaka Matsushita and Yoshio Sakka, "Doped-Carbon Electrocatalysts with Trimodal Porosity from a Homogeneous Polypeptide Gel", J. Mater. Chem. A 2013,1, 13576. See featured highlights by Birmingham University, azonano.com, nanowerk.com, the Mumbai mirror, FuelCellsWorks, supergen fuel cells, green car congress and phys.org Yuanjian Zhang,\* Zoë Schnepp,\* Junyu Cao, Shuxin Ouyang, Ying Li, Jinhua Ye, and Songqin Liu, "Biopolymer-Activated Graphitic Carbon Nitride towards a Sustainable Photocathode Material", Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 2163. Zhixin Zhou, Wei Wei, Yuanjian Zhang\* and Songqin Liu\*, "DNA-responsive disassembly of AuNP aggregates: influence of nonbase-paired regions and colorimetric DNA detection by exonuclease III aided amplification", J. Mater. Chem. B 2013, 1, 2851. Jens Peter Paraknowitsch,\* Yuanjian Zhang, Björn Wienerta and Arne Thomas, "Nitrogen- and phosphorus-co-doped carbons with tunable enhanced surface areas promoted by the doping additives", Chem. Commun. 2013, 49, 1208. Qing Kang, Junyu Cao, Yuanjian Zhang, Lequan Liu, Hua Xu and Jinhua Ye\*, "Reduced TiO2 nanotube arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting", J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 5766 Pakpoom Reunchan, Shuxin Ouyang, Naoto Umezawa,\* Hua Xu, Yuanjian Zhang and Jinhua Ye\*, "Theoretical design of highly active SrTiO3-based photocatalysts by a codoping scheme towards solar energy utilization for hydrogen production", J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 4221. Peng Li, Shuxin Ouyang, Yuanjian Zhang, Tetsuya Kako and Jinhua Ye \*, "Surface-coordination-induced selective synthesis of cubic and orthorhombic NaNbO3 and their photocatalytic properties", J. Mater. Chem. A 2013, 1, 1185. Jianjun Guo, Shuxin Ouyang, Peng Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Tetsuya Kako, Jinhua Ye\*, "A new heterojunction Ag3PO4/Cr-SrTiO3 photocatalyst towards efficient elimination of gaseous organic pollutants under visible light irradiation", Applied Catalysis B 2013, 134-135, 286. Junyu Cao, Juanjuan Xing, Yuanjian Zhang, Hua Tong, Yingpu Bi, Tetsuya Kako, Masaki Takeguchi, and Jinhua Ye\*, "Photoelectrochemical Properties of Nanomultiple CaFe2O4/ZnFe2O4pn Junction Photoelectrodes", Langmuir 2013, 29, 3116. Jens Peter Paraknowitsch\*, Björn Wienert, Yuanjian Zhang, Arne Thomas, "Intrinsically Sulfur- and Nitrogen-Co-doped Carbons from Thiazolium Salts", Chem. Eur. J. 2012, 18, 15416. Yuanjian Zhang\*, Toshiyuki Mori, and Jinhua Ye, "**Polymeric Carbon Nitrides: Semiconducting Properties and Emerging Applications in Photocatalysis and Photoelectrochemical Energy Conversion**", Sci. Adv. Mater. 2012, 4, 282-291. Jens Peter Paraknowitsch\*, Oyunbileg Sukhbat, Yuanjian Zhang, Arne Thomas,"One-Pot Synthesis of Metal-Doped Mesoporous Materials from (Dicyanamido)metallate Precursors", European Journal of Inorganic Chemistry 2012, 4105 (Cover image). Zongwei Mei, Ning Zhang, Shuxin Ouyang, Yuanjian Zhang, Tetsuya Kako, and Jinhua Ye\*, "Photoassisted fabrication of zinc indium oxide/oxysulfide composite for enhanced photocatalytic H2 evolution under visible-light irradiation", Sci. Tech. Adv. Mater. 2012, 13, 055001. Junyu Cao, Yuanjian Zhang, Hua Tong, Peng Li, Tetsuya Kako, and Jinhua Ye\*, "Selective local nitrogen doping in a TiO2 electrode for enhancing photoelectrochemical water splitting", Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 8646. Yuanjian Zhang\*, Keisuke Fugane, Toshiyuki Mori, Li Niu\*, and Jinhua Ye, "Wet Chemical Synthesis of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene towards Oxygen Reduction Electrocatalysts without High-Temperature Pyrolysis", J. Mater. Chem. 2012, 22, 6575-6580 (Back cover). Shuxin Ouyang, Hua Tong, Naoto Umezawa, Junyu Cao, Peng Li, Yingpu Bi, Yuanjian Zhang, Jinhua Ye\*, "Surface alkalinization induced enhancement of photocatalytic H2 evolution over SrTiO3-based photocatalysts", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 1974–1977. Yuanjian Zhang\*, Toshiyuki Mori, Li Niu\*, and Jinhua Ye, "Non-Covalent Doping of Graphitic Carbon Nitride Polymer with Graphene: Controlled Electronic Structure and Enhanced Optoelectronic Conversion", Energy & Environ. Sci. 2011, 4, 4517 (Back cover). Kui Xie, Naoto Umezawa, Ning Zhang, Pakpoom Reunchan, Yuanjian Zhang, Jinhua Ye\*, "Self-Doped SrTiO3-δ Photocatalyst with Enhanced Activity for Artificial Photosynthesis under Visible Light", Energy Environ. Sci. 2011, 4, 4211-4219. Jens Peter Paraknowitsch, Yuanjian Zhang, and Arne Thomas, "Synthesis of mesoporous composite materials of nitrogen-doped carbon and silica using a reactive surfactant approach", J. Mater. Chem. 2011, 21, 15537. Ming Hu, Julien Reboul, Shuhei Furukawa, Logudurai Radhakrishnan, Yuanjian Zhang, Pavuluri Srinivasu, Hideo Iwai, Hongjing Wang, Yoshihiro Nemoto, Norihiro Suzuki, Susumu Kitagawa and Yusuke Yamauchi\*, "Direct synthesis of nanoporous carbon nitride fibers using Al-based porous coordination polymers (Al-PCPs)", Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 8124. Ning Zhang, Shuxin Ouyang, Peng Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Guangcheng Xi, Tetsuya Kako and Jinhua Ye\*, "Ion-exchange synthesis of a micro/mesoporous Zn2GeO4 photocatalyst at room temperature for photoreduction of CO2", Chem. Commun. 2011, 47, 2041. Li Zhao, Xiufang Chen, Xinchen Wang\*, Yuanjian Zhang, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun, Markus Antonietti, Maria-Magdalena Titirici\*, "One-Step Solvothermal Synthesis of a Carbon@TiO2 Dyade Structure Effectively Promoting Visible-Light Photocatalysis", Adv. Mater.2010, 22, 3317. Li Zhao, Niki Baccile, Silvia Gross, Yuanjian Zhang, Wei Wei, Yuhan Sun, Markus Antonietti, Maria-Magdalena Titirici\*, "Sustainable nitrogen-doped carbonaceous materials from biomass derivatives", Carbon 2010, 48, 3778. Yuanjian Zhang\*, Toshiyuki Mori, Jinhua Ye, and Markus Antonietti, "Phosphorus-Doped Carbon Nitride Solid: Enhanced Electrical Conductivity and Photocurrent Generation", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010,132, 6294–6295. Yuanjian Zhang\*, and Markus Antonietti, "Photocurrent Generation by Polymeric Carbon Nitride Solids: an Initial Step towards a novel Photovoltaic System", Chem. Asia J. 2010, 5, 1307-1311 (Cover picture). Yong Wang, Xinchen Wang, Markus Antonietti, and Yuanjian Zhang\*, "Facile One-Pot Synthesis of Nanoporous Carbon Nitride Solids using Soft Templates", ChemSusChem 2010, 3, 435-439. Yuanjian Zhang\*, Arne Thomas, Markus Antonietti, Xinchen Wang, "Activation of Carbon Nitride Solids by protonation: Morphology changes, Enhanced Ionic Conductivity and Photoconduction Experiments", J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 50-51. Yanfei Shen, Yuanjian Zhang, Dongxue Han, Zhijuan Wang, Li Niu\* and Ari Ivaska, "Preparation of Colorless Ionic Liquids “on Water” for Spectroscopy", Talanta 2009, 78, 805-808. Yanfei Shen, Yuanjian Zhang, Daniel Kuehner, Guifu Yang, Fuyu Yuan and Li Niu\*, "Ion-Responsive Behavior of Ionic-Liquid Surfactant Aggregates with Applications in Controlled Release and Emulsification", ChemPhysChem 2008, 9, 2198-2202. [Highlighted by NPG Asia Materials] Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Daniel Kuehner, Shuixing Wu, Zhongmin Su, Shen Ye and Li Niu\*, "Directing Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes to Self-Assemble at Water/Oil Interface and Facilitate Electron Transfer", Chem. Commun. 2008, 4273-4275. Junhua Yuan, Zhijuan Wang, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Dongxue Han, Qixiang Zhang, Xiaoyu Xu, Li Niu, "Electrostatic layer-by-layer a of platinum-loaded multiwall carbon nanotube multilayer: A tunable catalyst film for anodic methanol oxidation", Thin Solid Films 2008, 516, 6531-6535. Zhijuan Wang, Junhua Yuan, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen,Daniel Kuehner, Li Niu\*, Ari Ivaska, "Simultaneous synthesis of polyaniline nanotubules and gold nanoplates", Crystal Growth & Design 2008, 8, 1827-1832. Zhijuan Wang, Meiye Li, Pingping Su, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Dongxue Han, Ari Ivaska, Li Niu\*, "Direct electron transfer of horseradish peroxidase and its electrocatalysis based on carbon nanotube/thionine/gold composites", Electrochem. Commun. 2008, 10, 306-310. Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Dongxue Han, Zhijuan Wang, Jixia Song, Fei Li and Li Niu\*, "Carbon Nanotube and Glucose Oxidase Bionanocomposite Bridged by Ionic Liquid-like Unit: Preparation and Electrochemical Properties", Biosens. Bioelectron. 2007, 23(3), 438-443. Yanfei Shen, Yuanjian Zhang, Xuepeng Qiu, Haiquan Guo, Li Niu\* and Ari Ivaska, “Polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid for electrochemistry in supporting electrolyte-free aqueous solutions and application in amperometric flow injection analysis” Green Chem. 2007, 9, 746-753. Fan Yang, Liansheng Jiao, Yanfei Shen, Xiaoyu Xu, Yuanjian Zhang, Li Niu\*, "Enhanced response induced by polyelectrolyte-functionalized ionic liquid in glucose biosensor based on sol–gel organic–inorganic hybrid material", J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 608, 78-83. Zhijuan Wang, Junhua Yuan, Meiye Li, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Li Niu\*, and Ari Ivaska, "Electropolymerization and catalysis of well-dispersed polyaniline/carbon nanotube/gold composite", J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 599, 121-126. Junhua Yuan, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Zhijuan Wang, Qixian Zhang and Li Niu\*, "Electrostatic assembly of polyaniline and platinum-poly(amidoamine) dendrimers hybrid nanocomposite multilayer, and its electrocatalysis towards CO and O2", J. Electroanal. Chem. 2007, 599, 127-135. Zhijuan Wang, Meiye Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Junhua Yuan, Yanfei Shen, Li Niu\*, Ari Ivaska, "Thionine-interDOIed multi-walled carbon nanotube/gold nanoparticle composites", Carbon 2007, 45, 2111-2115. Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Zhijuan Wang and Li Niu\*, "Fast and facile preparation of superhigh aspect-ratio Cu-thiourea nanowires in large quantity", Mater. Lett. 2007, 61, 3632-3634. Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Dongxue Han, Zhijuan Wang, Jixia Song and Li Niu\*, "Reinforcement of Silica with Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes through Covalent Functionalization", J. Mater. Chem. 2006, 16, 4592-4597. Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Junhua Yuan, Dongxue Han, Zhijuan Wang, Qixian Zhang and Li Niu\*, "Design and Synthesis of Multifunctional Materials Based on an Ionic-Liquid Backbone", Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 5867-5870. Kun Huang, Yuanjian Zhang, Yunze Long, Junhua Yuan, Dongxue Han, Zhijuan Wang, Li Niu\* and Zhaojia Chen, "Preparation of highly conductive, self-assembled gold/polyaniline nanocables and polyaniline nanotubes", Chem.-Eur. J. 2006, 12, 5314-5319. Kun Huang, Yuanjian Zhang, Dongxue Han, Yanfei Shen, Zhijuan Wang, Junhua Yuan, Qixain Zhang and Li Niu\*, "One-step synthesis of 3D dendritic gold/polypyrrole nanocomposites via a self-assembly method", Nanotechnology 2006, 17, 283-288. Junhua Yuan, Zhijuan Wang, Qixian Zhang, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen and Li Niu\*, "Controlled synthesis of 2D Au nanostructure assembly with the assistance of sulfonated polyaniline nanotubes", Nanotechnology 2006, 17, 2641-2648. Junhua Yuan, Yuanxian Chen, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Zhijuan Wang and Li Niu\*, "Synthesis of highly faceted multiply twinned gold nanocrystals stabilized by polyoxometalates", Nanotechnology 2006, 17, 4689-4694. Dongxue Han, Xuepeng Qiu, Yanfei Shen, Haiquan Guo, Yuanjian Zhang and Li Niu\*, "Electropolymerization of polypyrrole on PFIL–PSS-modified electrodes without added support electrolytes", J. Electroanal. Chem. 2006, 596, 33-37. Xuefeng Ding, Zichen Wang, Dongxue Han, Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Zhijuan Wang and Li Niu\*, "An effective approach to synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate)/silica nanocomposites", Nanotechnology 2006, 17, 4796-4801. Yanfei Shen, Yuanjian Zhang, Qixain Zhang, Li Niu\*, Tianyan You and Ari Ivaska, "Immobilization of ionic liquid with polyelectrolyte as carrier", Chem. Commun. 2005, 4193-4195. Jinghong Li\*, Yanfei Shen, Yuanjian Zhang and Yang Liu, "Room-temperature ionic liquids as media to enhance the electrochemical stability of self-assembled monolayers of alkanethiols on gold electrodes", Chem. Commun. 2005, 360-362. Yuanjian Zhang, Yanfei Shen, Jinghong Li\*, Li Niu\*, Shaojun Dong and Ari Ivaska, "Electrochemical functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes in large quantities at a room-temperature ionic liquid supported three-dimensional network electrode", Langmuir 2005, 21, 4797-4800. Yuanjian Zhang, Yi Fan, Chunyan Sun, Dezhen Shen, Yajun Li and Jinghong Li\*, "Functionalized polydiacetylene-glycolipid vesicles interacted with Escherichia coli under the TiO2 colloid", Colloids Surf., B 2005, 40, 137-142. Yanfei Shen, Tian Wu, Yuanjian Zhang, Jinghong Li\*, "Comparison of two-typed (3-mercaptopropyl)trimethoxysilane-based networks on Au substrates", Talanta 2005, 65, 481-488. Yuanjian Zhang, Jun Li, Yanfei Shen, Meijia Wang and Jinghong Li\*, "Poly-L-lysine functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes", J. Phys. Chem. B 2004, 108, 15343-15346. Yuanjian Zhang, Yi Wen, Yang Liu, Di Li and Jinghong Li\*, "Functionalization of single-walled carbon nanotubes with Prussian blue", Electrochem. Commun. 2004, 6, 1180-1184. Yuanjian Zhang, Baoliang Ma, Yajun Li and Jinghong Li\*, "Enhanced affinochromism of polydiacetylene monolayer in response to bacteria by incorporating CdS nano-crystallites", Colloids Surf., B 2004, 35, 41-44. Yuanjian Zhang, Ping He, Xiudong Xu and Jinghong Li\*, "Use of atomic force microscopy for imaging the initial stage of the nucleation of calcium phosphate in Langmuir-Blodgett films of stearic acid", Thin Solid Films 2004, 468, 273-279. Lihong Shi, Tian Wu, Meijia Wang, Di Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Jinghong Li\*, "Molecule-based cobalt hexacyanoferrate nanoparticle: Synthesis, characterization, and its electrochemical properties", Chinese J. Chem. 2005, 23, 149-154. Chunyan Sun, Yuanjian Zhang, Yi Fan, Yajun Li, Jinghong Li\*, "Mannose-Escherichia coli interaction in the presence of metal cations studied in vitro by colorimetric polydiacetylene/glycolipid liposomes", J. Inorg. Biochem. 2004, 98, 925-930. Yuanjian Zhang, Liheng Zhou, Di Li, Naicun Xue, Xiudong Xu and Jinghong Li\*, "Oriented nano-structured hydroxyapatite from the template", Chem. Phys. Lett. 2003, 376, 493-497. Di Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Junguang Jiang, Jinghong Li\*, "Electroactive gold nanoparticles protected by 4-ferrocene thiophenol monolayer", J. Colloid Interf. Sci 2003, 264, 109-113. Di Li, Yuanjian Zhang, Jinghong Li\*, "Electrochemical study of 4-ferrocene thiophenol monolayers assembled on gold nanoparticles", Microelectron. Eng. 2003, 66, 91-94.